A review of UNCT configuration responds to United Nations Member States’ call for a “needs-based tailored country-presence”411. This call followed the Secretary-General’s recommendation that the “United Nations development system move away from a somewhat standardized model of physical presence, which largely reflects the historical evolution of each individual entity”422 to one that ensures “the right system-wide capacities and encourage(s) more integrative, effective and agile ways of working”433. This process is much larger than the question of which agency needs to be resident or not. Coupled with the re-organization and redeployment of regional assets, the reconfiguration of business models in connection with multicountry offices, and the ambitious changes planned for common services, implicit in a configuration review is the ability to draw on a much wider palate of options in accessing the full UN development system’s capacities. Preparation of a new Cooperation Framework should trigger a discussion on these issues and related actions to deliver on commitments.